Tyndale Bulletin

Vol.48.2 (November 1997)

 

Articles

AN 'EXTRAORDINARY FACT': TORAH AND TEMPLE AND THE CONTOURS OF THE HEBREW CANON, PART 2
Stephen Dempster
Associate Professor of Old Testament, Atlantic Baptist University, New Brunswick
DIONYSUS AGAINST THE CRUCIFIED: NIETZSCHE CONTRA CHRISTIANITY, PART 1
Stephen N. Williams
Professor of Systematic Theology, Union Theological College, Belfast
THE DATE OF THE PASSOVER SACRIFICES AND MARK 14:12
Maurice Casey
Reader in Early Jewish and Christian Studies, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, England
'BEING SHED FOR YOU/MANY': TIME-SENSE AND CONSEQUENCES IN THE SYNOPTIC CUP CITATIONS
Lynne C. Boughton
Lecturer, Department of Philosophy, Oakton Community College, Illinois
UNITY OR DIVERSITY IN WISDOM THEOLOGY? A CANONICAL AND COVENANTAL PERSPECTIVE
Richard L. Schultz
Associate Professor of Old Testament, Wheaton College, Illinois
BINDING OBLIGATIONS IN ROMANS 13:7: A SEMANTIC FIELD AND SOCIAL CONTEXT
Thomas M. Coleman
Clare College, Cambridge
HISTORICAL CRISIS AND COSMIC CRISIS IN MARK 13 AND LUCAN'S CIVIL WAR
Edward Adams
Lecturer, King's College London
'APPOINT THE DESPISED AS JUDGES!' (1 CORINTHIANS 6:4)
Brent Kinman
Assistant Professor, Beeson Divinity School, Birmingham, Alabama
HEALING BY A MERE TOUCH AS A CHRISTIAN CONCEPT
Pieter J. Lalleman
Groningen University
FURTHER OBSERVATIONS ON THE TERM 'SEED' IN GENESIS
T. Desmond Alexander
Lecturer in Semitic Studies, The Queen's University of Belfast

Dissertation Abstracts

IS JOHN'S GOSPEL ANTI-SEMITIC?
Glenn Balfour
Lecturer in New Testament, Mattersey Bible College, Sheffield
AUTHORITY AND INTERPRETIVE METHOD IN LUTHER'S APPROACH TO SCRIPTURE
Mark Thompson
Lecturer in Church History, Moore Theological College, Sydney
LEADERSHIP AND LIFESTYLE: LUKE'S PAUL, LUKE'S JESUS AND THE PAUL OF 1 THESSALONIANS
Steve Walton
Lecturer in New Testament, St. John's College, Nottingham

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AN 'EXTRAORDINARY FACT': TORAH AND TEMPLE AND THE CONTOURS OF THE HEBREW CANON, PART 2

Stephen Dempster

Summary
Part 1 reviewed recent studies that suggest the presence of significant editorial activity in the final form of the Hebrew Bible. It also presented evidence for such editorial activity in the first major division of the Hebrew Bible, the Torah. Part 2 now considers the second and third divisions of the canon, the Prophets and the Writings. Again, the themes of Torah and Temple, so prominent in the Torah, also provide a hermeneutical framework for these divisions. This editorial activity is also considered as internal evidence which can help determine the order of some of the books, particularly in the Writings.

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DIONYSUS AGAINST THE CRUCIFIED: NIETZSCHE CONTRA CHRISTIANITY, PART 1

Stephen N. Williams

Summary
This is the first part of a two-part study of Nietzsche and Christianity. Nietzsche's phrase 'Dionysus against the Crucified' is used as a kind of text for the articles. 'Dionysus' is the principle of life: raw, tragic, joyful, but real, subject to no extraneous principle. 'The Crucified' is the principle of death: anti-natural, symbolising consciousness of sin and foreboding authority of God, imposing a morbid principle on life. This part is strictly descriptive and although it outlines some elements in Nietzsche's philosophy, it suggests that philosophy as such will not provide an adequate response.

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THE DATE OF THE PASSOVER SACRIFICES AND MARK 14:12

Maurice Casey

Summary
It is usually thought that Jews sacrificed their Passover offerings in the Temple during the afternoon of 14th Nisan. There is, however, evidence that many people sacrificed on the 13th Nisan and the morning of the 14th Nisan.

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'BEING SHED FOR YOU/MANY': TIME-SENSE AND CONSEQUENCES IN THE SYNOPTIC CUP CITATIONS

Lynne C. Boughton

Summary
All three Synoptic accounts of the Last Supper describe a cup offering in which Jesus refers to an act done for beneficiaries. This act, expressed by the present passive participle ejkcunnovmenon is rendered by most modern translations with present tense verb forms and has been treated by source and historical critical researchers as denoting a 'pouring out' taking place at the supper table. Nevertheless, biblical Greek usage indicates that a participle's time-sense was determined not by tense but by verbal aspect derived from content. If, as this essay proposes, verbal aspect establishes a future time sense for ejkcunnovmenon, it would indicate that the Synoptic Gospels, like John's Gospel, are describing a Passover supper on the eve of the Day of Preparation and portraying Jesus as speaking of the shedding of blood on the cross, not the libation at the table.

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UNITY OR DIVERSITY IN WISDOM THEOLOGY? A CANONICAL AND COVENANTAL PERSPECTIVE

Richard L. Schultz

Summary
Recent publications on Old Testament wisdom literature perpetuate the theory of a 'crisis in wisdom' and leave unresolved the question of its provenance within Old Testament theology. Despite considerable diversity within the wisdom corpus, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Job are in basic agreement regarding wisdom's limitations and benefits, as well as regarding divine freedom and retribution. Thus a case can be made for unity in wisdom theology, a theology which is rooted in Israel's covenant faith and in its creation traditions. The intertextual relationships between the wisdom corpus and the other Old Testament books indicate that this tradition has been consciously integrated into the larger Old Testament canon.

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BINDING OBLIGATIONS IN ROMANS 13:7: A SEMANTIC FIELD AND SOCIAL CONTEXT

Thomas M. Coleman

Summary
Insufficient attention has been given to the meaning of the four distinctive terms used in Romans 13:7: 'tribute' (fovro"), 'tax' (tevlo"), 'reverence' (fovbo"), and 'honour' (timhv). This article will discuss these terms in relation to the Graeco-Roman semantic field of political obligation, dividing them into the categories of 'tangible' obligations (tribute and tax) and 'intangible' obligations (reverence and honour). We will also examine Romans 13:7 in light of the social context of the Neronean era, in which there was an increasing burden of taxation and the introduction of legal penalties for failure to show due reverence and honour to those in authority.

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HISTORICAL CRISIS AND COSMIC CRISIS IN MARK 13 AND LUCAN'S CIVIL WAR

Edward Adams

Summary
This article suggests that the association of the fall of Jerusalem and the consummation of the age in Mark 13 finds a parallel in the linkage of the collapse of the Roman Republic and the collapse of the cosmos in Lucan's Civil War. Both texts, it is proposed, link a historical catastrophe with the end of the world/age in broadly similar ways.

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'APPOINT THE DESPISED AS JUDGES!' (1 CORINTHIANS 6:4)

Brent Kinman

Summary:
The most recent critical editions of the New Testament along with a majority of modern commentators do no believe the apostle Paul calls for the appointment of Christian arbiters in 1 Corinthians 6:4. Drawing attention to the cultural and legal situation of Corinth, and to certain features of Greek grammar, this essay argues that Paul indeed calls for the 'despised' Christians in Corinth to be made arbiters should lawsuits arise.

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HEALING BY A MERE TOUCH AS A CHRISTIAN CONCEPT

Pieter J. Lalleman

Summary:
On the basis of Otto Weinreich's Antike Heilungswunder (1909), it is generally thought that the idea that a simple touch can have healing power originated with the Greeks. The present essay argues, however, that this concept is proper to the Gospels and to texts dependent on them. There are no Greek cases of such healings before the rise of Christianity. Before Christ, the concept of healing by a mere touch occurs only in one isolated case, viz. the Genesis Apocryphon from Qumran.

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FURTHER OBSERVATIONS ON THE TERM 'SEED' IN GENESIS

T. Desmond Alexander

First paragraph:
In a recent study relating to Genesis 3:15, Jack Collins observes that certain syntactical features make it possible to distinguish between [r"z< meaning 'seed' (singular) and 'seeds' (plural). This is important because the noun [r"z< itself does not have distinctive singular and plural forms; the singular form [r"z< also functions as a collective noun. After surveying all the occurrences of [r"z< meaning 'offspring' in the Hebrew Bible, Collins concludes that when a writer wishes to indicate that [r"z< 'denotes a specific descendant, it appears with singular verb inflections, adjectives, and pronouns'. On this basis the 'seed of the woman' in Genesis 3:15 must be understood as referring to a single individual and not numerous descendants.

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IS JOHN'S GOSPEL ANTI-SEMITIC?

Glenn Balfour

First paragraph:
Before 1945 a few pioneers began to argue that anti-semitic sentiments exist in some New Testament writings. After the war other scholars joined in with this contention, culminating in Rosemary Ruether's Faith and Fratricide (1974). The Fourth Gospel, with its notable polemic against 'the Jews', has subsequently remained largely abandoned to an anti-Jewish interpretation. Our aim is to demonstrate that the Fourth Gospel is not anti-semitic.

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AUTHORITY AND INTERPRETIVE METHOD IN LUTHER'S APPROACH TO SCRIPTURE

Mark Thompson

First paragraph:
Martin Luther's approach to Holy Scripture remains controversial. Though most recognise his significance in the history of biblical interpretation, no genuine consensus has yet emerged concerning the basic elements of his approach. Attempts to portray him as the forefather of biblical criticism, an archetypal fundamentalist, and even a proto-existentialist, all attract trenchant criticism. The interests of the twentieth century repeatedly intrude and distort many reconstructions. In the commotion, Luther's own voice is often lost.

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LEADERSHIP AND LIFESTYLE: LUKE'S PAUL, LUKE'S JESUS AND THE PAUL OF 1 THESSALONIANS

Steve Walton

First paragraph:
Paul's speech to the Ephesian elders at Miletus (Acts 20:18-35) is important for two interlocking debates: first, concerning the relationship between the portrait of Paul found in Acts and that derived from the epistles; and second, concerning Luke's sources-specifically, whether Luke had knowledge of the Pauline epistles. This thesis contributes to both debates by a careful examination of the speech, and a comparison with speeches by Jesus in Luke's Gospel (to see how Lukan the Miletus speech is) and 1 Thessalonians (to see how Pauline the speech is).

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