Tyndale Bulletin

Vol.45.2 (November 1994)

 

 

Articles

THE EPISTLE TO THE GALATIANS AND CLASSICAL RHETORIC: Part 3
Janet Fairweather
Researcher, Faculty of Classics, University of Cambridge

THE STRUCTURE OF HEBREWS FROM THREE PERSPECTIVES
Steve Stanley
University of Sheffield

ENTERTAINING ANGELS: THEIR PLACE IN CONTEMPORARY THEOLOGY
Lawrence Osborn
Richmond, Surrey

WAKENING A SLEEPING METAPHOR: A NEW INTERPRETATION OF MALACHI 1:11
Ake Viberg
Senior Lecturer in Old Testament, Stockholm School of Theology

ETERNAL CREATION
Paul Helm
Professor of the History and Philosophy of Religion, King's College, London

FALLACIES IN THE STUDY OF EARLY ISRAEL: AN ONOMASTIC PERSPECTIVE
Richard S. Hess
Lecturer in Old Testament, Glasgow Bible College

JUDAISM AND THE RISE OF CHRISTIANITY: A ROMAN PERSPECTIVE
E.A. Judge
Emeritus Professor of Ancient History, Macquarie University

WHAT WERE THE SADDUCEES READING? AN ENQUIRY INTO THE LITERARY BACKGROUND OF MARK 12:18-23
Peter G. Bolt
King's College, London

IS UNIVERSALISM AN IMPLICATION OF THE NOTION OF POST-MORTEM EVANGELISM?
R.R. Cook
Lecturer, Redcliffe College, London

FOREIGN GODS IDENTIFIED IN ACTS 17:18?
K.L. McKay
formerly Reader in Classics, The Australian National University, Canberra

Dissertation Abstracts

JESUS THE ONLY TEACHER
Samuel Byrskog
University of Lund

THE UNDERWORLD AND THE DEAD IN THE OLD TESTAMENT
Philip Johnston
Teaching Fellow in Hebrew, St Andrews University, Scotland


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THE EPISTLE TO THE GALATIANS AND CLASSICAL RHETORIC: Part 3
Pages 213-243
Janet Fairweather
Researcher, Faculty of Classics, University of Cambridge

Summary
It has been demonstrated in Parts 1 and 2 of this study (Tyndale Bulletin, May 1994) that rhetorical criticism was applied to Paul's Epistles in late Antiquity and that Paul himself certainly displays a knowledge of some sophisticated terms and concepts derived from the Greek theory of rhetoric, though it may still be doubted whether he obtained this knowledge direct from pagan schools or textbooks. What justification did he have, then, for representing his discourse as alien to the sofia of this world? It will emerge, first through a close reading of Galatians and then through more general consideration of Paul's handling of the 'five parts of rhetoric' that, although at the more superficial levels Paul makes use of many of the techniques favoured by classical orators, the conceptual framework in which he operated was different from that of pagan sophists and the bases of his argumentation were distinct and innovative.

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THE STRUCTURE OF HEBREWS FROM THREE PERSPECTIVES
Pages 245-271
Steve Stanley
University of Sheffield

Summary
The literary genre, rhetorical character and content of Hebrews all provide clues to the structure of the book. In the final analysis none of these should be considered in isolation, but of the three, content is of primary importance. Among the most significant structural clues in Hebrews are the use of Scripture, particularly Psalm 110, the use of the 'word of exhortation' form, announcement of subject, the use of various genres within the larger framework of the homily and the fluctuations of theme and content. Hebrews can be divided into three main sections: the superiority of Christ (1-7), the superiority of Christ's ministry (8-10) and the resulting responsibilities of the people of God (11-13).

 

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ENTERTAINING ANGELS: THEIR PLACE IN CONTEMPORARY THEOLOGY
Pages 273-296
Lawrence Osborn
Richmond, Surrey

Summary
Taking as its starting point a survey of Karl Barth's angelology, this essay explores the potential role of angelology in contemporary orthodox theology. It outlines a possible structure for angelology by presenting angels in terms of both their function (as ministering spirits) and being (as inhabitants of heaven understood as a dimension of creation). The essay indicates various roles for angelology: as a defence of the mystery of creation and its openness to God; as a possible element in dialogue with post-materialism (particularly in its New Age manifestations); and as an aspect of contemporary Christian spirituality.

 

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AWAKENING A SLEEPING METAPHOR: A NEW INTERPRETATION OF MALACHI 1:11
Pages 297-319
Ake Viberg
Senior Lecuturer in Old Testament, Stockholm School of Theology

Summary
From the early history of the Christian church and onwards, interpreters have suggested that Malachi 1:11 presents a universalism, i.e, that the surrounding nations of post-exilic Judah actually worshipped YHWH as the one true God by their sacrifices. In this article I propose that neither this solution, nor any other previously proposed solution does sufficient justice to Malachi 1:11. Instead, I propose that we focus on how the author uses metaphorical language to strengthen his argument. In doing so, however, the author creates a new metaphor that continues to challenge the understanding of the reader.

 

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ETERNAL CREATION
Pages 221-338
Paul Helm
Professor of the History and Philosophy of Religion, King's College, London

Summary
The lecture provides a partial defence of the idea of the timelessly eternal creation of the universe, once commonplace among Christian theologians, but now widely disputed. On such a view God has ontological but not temporal priority over his creation. It is better to stress the negative aspects of divine timelessness than to think of it on analogy with temporal duration. Recent objections to the idea of causation being necessarily temporal are considered and rebutted. Some objections to the idea of God being in time are proposed. Finally, it is argued that the timeless eternity of God fits better with the Nicene doctrine of the eternal generation of the Son.

 

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FALLACIES IN THE STUDY OF EARLY ISRAEL: AN ONOMASTIC PERSPECTIVE
Pages 339-354
Richard S. Hess
Lecturer in Old Testament, Glasgow Bible College

Summary
This study considers the question of the origin of Israel and the interpretation of archaeological evidence for Palestinian hill country culture during the transition from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age. While new research has enhanced our understanding of the period, it is important to maintain methodological controls in certain areas. This includes the careful evaluation of archaeological and textual evidence without a preconceived bias which automatically assigns a priority to the material culture. There is also evidence for non-indigenous peoples in Palestine at this time. This balances assumptions that Israelites must have been 'Canaanites' with their origins entirely within Palestine. Evidence relating to these issues is discussed.

 

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JUDAISM AND THE RISE OF CHRISTIANITY: A ROMAN PERSPECTIVE
Pages 355-368
E.A. Judge
Emeritus Professor of Ancient History, Macquarie University

Summary
Romans did not see Christianity as part of Judaism. They objected to Jewish proselytisation but did not link Christians with it. In Rome (under Nero) Christians presented an unrelated novelty. Their name is a Latin formation, implying public factionalism. The Jews at Antioch must have successfully kept their distance for it to be coined at all. Nerva's making the Jewish tax optional licensed the Jewish life-style. This latitude was never extended to Christians nor claimed by them. The clear dividing line in civil practice implies the tax was based on lists supplied by the synagogues.

 

 

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WHAT WERE THE SADDUCEES READING? AN ENQUIRY INTO THE LITERARY BACKGROUND OF MARK 12:18-23
Pages 369-394
Peter G. Bolt
King's College, London

Summary
Where did the Sadducee's case study (Mk. 12:20-23) originate? After dismissing 2 Maccabees 7, this article suggests that the Book of Tobit most probably provides the Sadducees with their story. Both they and Tobit talk of the death of 7 husbands and Levirate marriage in the context of an interest in resurrection. The article ends by suggesting that this allusion to Tobit may bring further nuances to the reading of the Gospel of Mark.

 

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IS UNIVERSALISM AN IMPLICATION OF THE NOTION OF POST-MORTEM EVANGELISM?
Pages 395-409
R.R. Cook
Lecturer, Redcliffe College, London

Summary
As an exercise in philosophical theology rather than biblical exegesis this article probes the rational consistency of the position held by C. Pinnock that both accepts the idea of a post-mortem evangelism which would provide maximum opportunity for each person to turn to God and thus find complete fulfilment and happiness, and yet also contends that nevertheless not everyone will choose to be saved. Through an analysis of why people reject Christ in this life it is concluded that Pinnock is in fact consistent although his arguments need strengthening.

 

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FOREIGN GODS IDENTIFIED IN ACTS 17:18?
K.L. McKay
formerly Reader in Classics, The Australian National University, Canberra

First paragraph
The idea that the foreign gods referred to in Acts 17:18 included Anastasis has been widely recognised, at least from the time of Chrysostom (Aland-Nestle ad loc.), and has been incorporated into either the text or margin of some modern translations (e.g., NEB, JB). It appears to depend on the fact that the comment by some of the Athenians that Paul xevnwn daimonivwn dokei' kataggeleu;" ei\nai is followed by Luke's explanation o{ti to;n Ihsou'n kai; th;n ajnavstasin eujhggelivzeto (which, incidentally, is absent from the text of D). The plurality of the deities and the reference to a foreign name accompanied by an abstract noun that might in that setting have been treated as a deity appear to have made it a plausible idea.

 

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