The two digital transcriptions, TNT and TNT2
Two different transcriptions of Tregelles Greek New Testament have been produced
within the Tyndale House Text and Canon Project. The first (TNT) is a transcription
of the text as it was printed, including obvious errors and misprints. The second
(TNT2) is the text in which we have tried to remove the most obvious accentual and
printing errors and corrected the text in line with what more closely approximates
to the 'intended' text. A list of differences between the two versions can be found
in the download section.
Some features of the printed edition were not marked in order to concentrate our
efforts on the most relevant features. Thus the Eusebian apparatus is left out, the
section numbering which Tregelles included from Codex Vaticanus is also ignored,
and the citations of Old Testament material, which Tregelles prints in an italic
font which is sometimes difficult to detect, are left unmarked. What is included
are the page-numbers of the print edition, the section and paragraph breaks (in the
printed edition the former are marked by a blank line, the latter by simple indentation
of the first line of the paragraph), the punctuation of the text, and the accentuation
as given by Tregelles. The title and subscription at the end of each book are also
The punctuation in TNT is as found in the printed edition, though in the TNT2 version
we have occasionally added a missing comma or full stop. In not a few cases the printed
edition has two punctuation signs separated by one or even two dagger signs † , a
sign marking that an insertion exists and can be found in the apparatus (see e.g.
Romans 8:1). In such cases only the interpunction of the text as it is printed is
given (the later of the two punctuation signs), ignoring the influence that the variants
might have had. The only exception to this is the somewhat confused punctuation found
in Philemon 12.
Punctuation rests in many cases on the decision of the modern editor of a text, and
sometimes we encounter interesting and fresh choices by Tregelles. A good example
is James 4:5. This is how it is punctuated in most modern editions:
ἢ δοκεῖτε ὅτι κενῶς ἡ γραφὴ λέγει·
πρὸς φθόνον ἐπιποθεῖ τὸ πνεῦμα ὃ κατῷκισεν ἐν ἡμῖν,
Or do you suppose it is to no purpose that the Scripture says,
"He yearns jealously over the spirit that he has made to dwell in us"?
What is seemingly brought up as a quotation of Scripture cannot be found in this
form in the Old Testament. Probably because of this Tregelles punctuates this verse
ἢ δοκεῖτε ὅτι κενῶς ἡ γραφὴ λέγει;
πρὸς φθόνον ἐπιποθεῖ τὸ πνεῦμα ὃ κατῷκισεν ἐν ἡμῖν;
Or do you suppose that the Scripture speaks to no purpose?
Does the Spirit that dwells in us yearn to envy?
The basis for the transcription is formed by the digital images taken in the Summer
of 2008 by the team of the Center for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts. The
signature of a former owner of the copy that was used for these images, F.F. Bruce,
can still be seen (here).
It turned out harder than imagined to avoid transcriptional errors. The procedure
that was followed was to have two people, independent of one another, adjust existing
electronic editions towards what was seen on the photographs on screen. These two
transcriptions where then compared against each other and the differences were reconciled.
For Mark, Acts, and one of the two transcriptions of the Pastoral Epistles the Westcott-Hort
text was used as provided by the Crosswire Bible Society which is in the public domain.
For the remainder of the NT the GNT text as found in the Bibleworks computer program
(version 7) was used as the base, which is the copyrighted NA27 text (Nestle-Aland,
Novum Testamentum Graece, 27th Revised Edition, edited by Barbara Aland, Kurt Aland,
Johannes Karavidopoulos, Carlo M. Martini, and Bruce M. Metzger in cooperation with
the Institute for New Testament Textual Research, Münster/Westphalia, 1993 Deutsche
Bibelgesellschaft, Stuttgart). Neither electronic text proved to be completely free
of accentual errors, though the latter was of a much higher quality. After this a
print out of the transcription was compared against the actual printed text which
resulted again in the correction of details that were missed at the first stage.
Finally, a last proof reading of the transcript was made in conjunction with the
"Table of Changes and Corrections to TNT" in which special attention was given to
issues of accentuation and consistency. Especially in this phase, the expert knowledge
of Dr P.J. Williams filtered out a considerable number of glitches.
The meta-data included in the transcription are all within angular brackets < >,
except for the verse numbering, which is always preceded by $$$ and follows a fixed
format throughout. Included are page <Page = xxx>, Title <Title = ...>, Subscription
<Subsc = ...>, Section break <SB>, and Paragraph break <PB>.
A list of places where we have changed the transcription of TNT for the corrected
version TNT2 can be found in the download section. Many of these changes involve
accentuation and this is an area in which editorial practices have changed over the
last 150 years. We have made changes for different reasons. One obvious group are
the errors in the printed text of Tregelles, which range from obvious misprints (accents
on an 'impossible' syllable, e.g. Mark 10:37 ἐξ ἀρίστερῶν), to places in which Tregelles's
source text influences his text of choice. Another group of changes consists of the
way enclitics are handled. We have tried to follow the modern practice in cases where
two enclitics follow one another. Likewise, we have adopted the practice not to accentuate
an enclitic of two syllables if it follows a perispomenon. An issue that does affect
the New Testament is the question to what extent the shortening of certain vowels
was complete and universal in the first century AD. We have not been completely consistent
in this regard, thus allowing the frequent κρῖμα to stand, whilst correcting σπῖλοι
to σπίλοι. Modern practice regarding enclitics after the preposition πρός are not
consistent. We have tended to favour the unaccented forms with Tregelles (e.g. Mark
9:17 πρός σε). As a rule, we have not adapted the accentuation of proper nouns unless
these where left unaccented in TNT. There are also words with an uncertain accentuation.
Thus there is Luke 11:33 κρυπτὴν over against κρύπτην. Often we have left these as
Some examples of corrected misprints or misspellings are John 8:55, οὐτόν for αὐτόν,
and Acts 9:43, αὐπὸν for αὐτὸν. Likewise, the text as printed in 1 John 2:8 γράφω
ἡμῖν does not make sense and has no variant recorded in the apparatus. It seems reasonable
to see this as a misprint for γράφω ὑμῖν. Alternative spellings are normally maintained,
such as Acts 10:15 ἐκαθέρισεν for ἐκαθάρισεν. At a few places we have conformed the
punctuation and capitalisation to the standard pattern found elsewhere in Tregelles.