WWW Links for
Biblical Studies

Picture from Tyndale House

English Bible Translations
Original-language Bibles
Ancient Near Eastern Background
Egyptian Background

Graeco-Roman Background
Jewish Background
Early Church & Gnostic Background
Church History

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Important Sources of Links

Bible Researcher Web Links 
A good starting place for Biblical studies.
Biblical Studies
The first place to look for links to NT & Philo sites.
NT Gateway
The second place to look for useful NT links.
Christian Origins Links
Sites selected by Justin Meggitt of Jesus College, Cambridge
Academic Info : Biblical Studies
Academic sites, annotated and well organised
Open Directory Project: Bible
Links which do not descriminate, but are often useful
Internet Ancient History Source Book
A huge collection of texts and links to texts. Organised by origin and date

Biblical Translations and Texts

English Translations
Comparison of English translations 
Over one hundred English translations are listed, with brief introductions and many comparisons. Most of the Bible versions have been donated to Tyndale House where they are available for study.
See also:  Theory of Bible Translation and Interpreting Ancient Manuscripts (especially the NT). 
Historical English Bibles:
(Individual Bibles are listed below)
Historic English Bibles in parallel (Tyndale 1525-26, Tyndale 1534, Coverdale, Geneva, Bishops, KJV 1611):
       PentateuchNT original spelling; NT modern spelling
Images of historic English Bibles Full KJV 1611 and other illuminated Bibles
History of the Bible, Tyndale and his Bible , and links for historical translations
 
English Bible Versions available online:
When a version is available at multiple sites, the one with the best facilities is listed.

21st Century King James Version
A Conservative Version
American Standard Version
Amplified Bible
Analytical-Literal Translation NT
The Apostles' Bible (OT)
The Bible in Basic English
Bible in Worldwide English NT
Bishop's Bible (1568) 
Brit Chadasha NT (Orthodox Jewish)
The Common Edition NT
The Complete Jewish Bible
Coverdale Bible (1535) 
Contemporary English Version
Daniel Mace NT (1729)
Darby Translation
Disciples NT translated from Aramaic
Douay-Rheims American Edition
Douay-Rheims Challoner Revision
Easy-to-Read Version
English Jubilee 2000 Bible
English Majority Text Version NT
English Standard Version
Geneva Bible (1587)
GOD'S WORD translation
Good News Translation
Great Bible (1540) (subscription)
Hebrew Names Version
Holman Christian Standard Bible
J B Phillip's NT 
Jewish Publication Society 1917 version
International Standard Version
King James Version (modern edition)
King James Bible (1611)
Klingon Language Version of the World English Bible
Literal Translation Version (Green)
The Living Oracles NT
The Message

Matthew's Bible (1549) (subscription)
Modern King James Version (Green's Translation)
Modern Literal Version
Montgomery NT
New American Bible
New English Transation (NET Bible, with full notes)
New American Standard
New Century Version
New English Bible (subscription)
New International Reader’s Version
New International Version
New International Version (UK)
New King James Version
New Life Version
New Living Translation
New Revised Standard
The People's NT by B. W. Johnson (1891)
Revised King James NT
Revised Standard Version
Richard Challoner Bible (1750-52) (subscription)
Rotherham's Bible (=Emphasized Bible)
Sawyer NT (1858) (subscription)
Third Millennium Bible
Today's English Version (=Good News)
Today's New International Version
Twentieth Century NT
Tyndale Bible (1525/1530)
Websters Bible
Wesley NT (1755) 
West Saxon Gospels (990) (1175) (subscription)
Weymouth NT
World English Bible
World English Bible (latest revision)
Worldwide English NT
Wycliffe NT
Wycliffe Bible (1395)
Young's Literal Translation

What's the easiest to read? The Message. This is an intelligently prepared paraphrase which sometimes gets to the meaning better than a word-for-word or even a dynamic equivalent translation. This web version is linked to handy commentaries.
What's the most useful? The New American Standard. This modern word-for-word translation is usefully tagged for the underlying Hebrew and Greek. Click on a word for a simple lexicon.
What's the strangest? The Klingon. This is based on language of the battle-loving Klingons on Star Trek. Fans have created a 'real' language and done a word-by-word replacement. It is interesting which words are left in English because they have no equivalent in Klingon - like 'forgiveness' and 'grace'.
What's the most valuable? The William Tyndale translation. It can be claimed that he influenced the English language more than Shakespeare, with memorable phrases like "Let there be light" and “the powers that be”. A million copies of his New Testament were printed but only two complete copies survived Henry VIII's wrath, and they are now worth millions.
 
Other languages here and here and here
 

Original-language Bibles

Hebrew Old Testament

Scholars mainly use the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS) which is based on the Leningrad Codex (aka St Petersburg Codex). When this text was digitised by the Westminster Hebrew Institute, they took the opportunity to 'correct' the BHS to follow the Leningrad codex more faithfully. The BHS is important for the critical apparatus, though it is now being supplanted by the Quinta which is also based on the Leningrad Codex. The Aleppo Codex is older and often considered superior (though there are not many differences with the Leningrad Codex) but almost all the Pentateuch has been lost.

Aleppo Codex:
Facsimile of original.   Downloadable text.  
Searchable text: unpointed, linked to lexicon & grammar, with parallel English

Leningrad Codex (Westminster ed):  
Facsimile of original (nowhere on the web).   Downloadable text.   
Searchable text: pointed, linked to lexicon & grammar, with parallel English   Massoretic structure    search in Unicode

Greek New Testament

Thousands of ancient copies of the New Testament have survived. This enviable situation (which is unparalleled in other ancient literature) has enabled scholars to study copying errors in detail. Three main types of text have resulted from these studies, though their differences are minor.

The Textus Receptus is based on the first edition of the Greek text prepared by Erasmus, before the earliest manuscripts had been discovered. It forms the basis of the earliest English Bibles, notably the King James Bible. It is still used by many because it contains the long reading of 1 John 5.7 which is first found in a Greek manuscript penned a short time before Erasmus published his edition - it was said to have been prepared especially for this purpose!

Most scholars use the text of Nestle & Aland which gives preference to the oldest manuscripts (mainly Vaticanus B and Sinaiticus) and to the papyri from the first three centuries. Decisions about which reading was original is based on which one was most likely to cause later scribes to produce the others. This is published by the  American Bible Society ("NA27" - ie Nestle-Aland, 27th ed.) & the United Bible Society (UBS4). Recent (NA26, NA27, UBS3, UBS4) editions have virtually identical texts and differ only in their critical apparatus, but NA28 will incorporate some new readings from the Editio Critica Maior. This text is basically similar to earlier editions by Westcott & Hort, Tischendorf and Weiss, who all followed broadly similar principles.

Some scholars use the Majority Text which gives more-or-less equal weight to a much wider number of manuscripts up to about 1500 AD. Decisions about which reading was original is based mainly on the largest number of manuscripts which contain that reading.

Original Manuscripts:
Major Codexes: Sinaiticus, Vaticanus B (pseudo-facsimile), Bezae, Alexandrinus.
Papyri, minuscules etc: (complete list) (images & discussion of many) (more images)

Editions from multiple manuscripts:

Textus Receptus unaccented, searchable, linked to lexicon & grammar, linked to parallel English
Tischendorf's 8th Ed unaccented, searchable, with parallel English
Westcott & Hort: unaccented with NA27 variants, searchable, linked to lexicon & grammar, with linked parallel English
accented, searchable, linked to lexicon & grammar, with parallel English
accented, searchable, linked to full L&S lexicon
NA27/UBS3 unaccented, searchable, linked to lexicon & grammar
accented, searchable, linked to lexicon & grammar
Majority Text unaccented, searchable, linked to lexicon & grammar, with parallel English
Variants NA26 with variants marked
interactive apparatus (incomplete)                NA new 'full' apparatus (incomplete)
5 parallel eds
textual commentary                list of variants
(all of the above) major eds with variants, linked to grammar and very good lexicons + ECF allusions   - scholar's heaven!

Ancient Translations - originals & English translations 

OT Greek Translation (Septuagint, LXX)
Original manuscripts: Facsimiles (ID="any" Password = "any")
Rahlf's Text: unaccented, searchable, linked to lexicon & grammar, with parallel English
Ecclesiastical Greek: download Greek-English interlinear as pdfs
Translation by Brenton: English, searchable      Revised
NETS - New English Translation of the Septuagint English PDFs
Downloadable Word doc: Rahlf's, accented & Tov's parallels with Hebrew

OT Aramaic Paraphrase (Tragums)
All Targums in Aramaicpointed or translitterated
Pentateuch trans by Etheridge: Ps-Jonathan & Onkelos: English only
Psalms & Megillot trans by E M Cook and others: English only

OT & NT Syriac Translation (Peshitta)
OT: transliterated or unpointed, linked to lexicon
NT: unpointed, searchable, with parallel English 
     pointed with interlinear English 
     transliterated or unpointed, linked to lexicon  
     Syraic & Hebrew font, with interlinear English
NT trans by MurdochEnglish with parallel Syriac   English only
NT trans by Etheridge: English only
OT trans by Lamsa: English only

OT & NT Latin Translation (Old Latin & Vulgate)
Old Latin (Vetus Latina) - pre-Vulgate Latin Bible fragments. (Tyndale access via Cambridge University)
Vulgate: searchable, with parallel English   proximity searches

Other ancient translations
Coptic: Sahidic Coptic NT (parallel with Greek) also cheap ePrinting. Boharic Copic cheap ePrinting.  
Samaritan:  Samaritan Pentateuch in Hebrew Squarescript
Armenian: 5th C 'Zohrab Bible' cheap ePrinting
Many texts are available in commercial software

See Tov's summary of available electronic resources for Bible manuscripts for more details.

Ancient Near Eastern Background to the Bible

Argos ancient world search-engine
A WWW search engine which brings up nothing but treasure! This is the place to start.
Internet Ancient History Source Book
A large collection of ANE texts and links to texts
Oriental Institute, University of Chicago
Writings and links for the study of the Ancient Near East including ancient Egypt
K.C. Hanson's links page
Lots more links like those listed here.
Image collection of West Semitic Research
Including intersting inscriptions, papyri from Assyria, Qumran, Elephantine etc
Digital Map of the Ancient Near East
Runs from a plugin which you install on your computer
Hammurabi's Code of Laws 
Transl. by L. W. King, Full text on a lawyer's site. Full text on Iraq's UN site!
The Philistine Homepage
Archaeology and maps of sites
Archeoligical Excavations in Israel
Sites looking for volunteers, and latest news of what's happening.
The Bible and Interpretation  
News about archaeology and how it applies to the Bible.
Archaeology email discussion lists
A huge list of discussion groups, with web links and ftp sites as well
Tafila-Busayra Archaeological Survey
Archaeological survey in Jordan
Kevin Green's "Electronic Companion" to archaeology
A general introduction to the whole subject of archaeology.
Archaeology on the Net
A large number of links to ANE archaeology sites
The Incirli Stela
This unpublished stele seems to refer to child sacrifice, according to Bruce Zuckerman

 

Egyptian Background to the Bible

Egyptian Antiquities
Interesting info put in an interesting way
Ancient Egypt Links and more
Links from academic archaeology to tourism
Who's Who of Egypt
Huge number of people, though very brief notes on each
Maps of Ptolemaic Egypt
All the latest archaeological finds and other maps
Ptolemaic Egypt
Links to academic sites for Egypt from 3rd C BCE to Byzantine times
Index of Egyptian History
All 32 Dynasties. Good overview linked to detailed essays
Genealogy of the Egyptian Kings
Superb example of genealogies on the web, with academic references
Egyptian Book of the Dead
Translation of the Papyrus of Ani
Religion and Philosophy of Egypt
Academic treatise suggests Egypt was the source of Greek thought
Redating the Exodus or sticking with the Hyksos date
A proposed redating of virtually everything by David Rohl. and Criticism of David Rohl
Religion and Philosophy of Egypt
Academic treatise suggests Egypt was the source of Greek thought
Evidence for Israel in Egypt
Straightforward article on Joseph in Hyksos Egypt
Chicago Demotic Dictionary Project
Full online version of the best demotic dictionary in print (when it is finished)
Hieroglyphic dictionary and Sign Lists 
Short introduction, and "Your name in Hieroglyphics"

 


Graeco-Roman Background to the Bible

Perseus Site: - a site with many hard-to-find treasures:  (Try the experimental Tyndale mirror - Classical + Papyri)
    If Tufts University is down, try a mirror:  (1) USA: Chicago, (2) Germany, Berlin or (3) UK, Oxford. Mirrors
    Greek & Latin texts, mostly with translations (1) (2) (3)
    Greek & Latin papyri (1) (2) (3)
    - with powerful search facilities (1) (2) (3)
    Lexical tools for Greek & Latin, plus morphological analysis and more, including: (1) (2) (3)
    - Greek lexicon: full & shorter Liddell-Scott-Jones, with synonym and context analysis (1) (2) (3)
    - Greek morphological analysis of inflected forms (1) (2) (3)
    - Latin lexicon: full Lewis & Short, with synonym & context analysis (1) (2) (3)
    - Latin morphological analysis of inflected forms (1) (2) (3)
    Font display help (1) (2) (3)
    Art and archaeology with a huge image collection (1) (2) (3)
    Topgraphical Dictionary of Ancient Rome by Platner & Ashby (1) (2) (3)
    Subject lookup for everything else (1) (2) (3)
 
New Pauly (Tyndale access via Cambridge University)
Dictionary of Graeco-Roman background. An update and English version of Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft
Learning Latin 
Latin Dictionary & Grammar Aids or Digital Latin Lexicon (free program to download)
Learning Greek
Greek Conjugator Program - free download. Makes charts and conjugates verbs.
Thesaurus Linguae Graecae
Info about the TLG project, and a huge list of Ancient Authors included in the latest update
Suda On Line: Byzantine Lexicography
Massive 10th century Byzantine Greek historical encyclopedia of the ancient Mediterranean world, derived from the scholia to critical editions of canonical works and from compilations by yet earlier authors
Heidelberger Gesamtverzeichnis - Egyptian Greek Papyri database
Covers roughly the same papyri as Perseus, but the indexing is better. It is in German, with English help.
Duke Papyrus Archive
Collection of 1373 Egyptian Papyri, with background articles
Papyri at Michegan
A large collection, almost all with notes and translation as well as images of the papyri
Papyri from Oxyrhynchus
Summaries and images from the latest volumes of this huge printed collection.
Marriage & Divorce Papyri
All Greek, Latin & Aramiaic marriage & divorce documents from 500 BCE to 500 CE
Papyrus Collections Worldwide
Catalogue of 'all' edited and yet-to-be-edited papyri
Wordlist for recently published Papyri
All the Greek words in papyri and ostraca and that are not yet included in Perseus.
Latin & Greek Inscriptions
Inscriptions collected from the various paper publications, on many sites. See esp. Malitz's collection
Greek inscriptions are nicely searchable at the Packard Humanities Institute (search tools are at the bottom of the page)
Oxford Text Archive
Mostly English Literature texts, but this massive archive also has many ancient Greek and Latin texts
Interactive Ancient Mediterranean
Maps illustrating the classical world of Europe and the Med, but not Palestine.
Interactive Ancient Mediterranean Atlas
Based on the scholarship of the Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Just starting: good maps, but few descriptions.
LacusCurtius
Roman maps, gazetteer, links and two encyclopaedias on Roman life and Roman architecture.
Corinth Computer Project
History and archaeology of Corinth. Very informative, but the map isn't as pretty as ours.
John Porter's University of Saskatchewan course on the archaeology of daily life
Covers the Greek and Roman world. Well organised, with links to other sites.
Orbis Latina 
Latin place names
RomanSites
A HUGE body of works, links and pictures for Roman background. Incl. an index to inscriptions.
Ancient Rome Resource Database
More useful links to web and paper resources.
Classics Resources, university of Florida
Resources and links for the study of Classical texts, incl. a list of etexts.
Archaeology of Thessalonica
Gene Green's slides and anotations, with a fast search engine.
Cassius Dio: Roman History 
Complete text of Earnest Cary's Loeb translation.
Electronic Resources for Classicists 
Well organised links to texts, tools, bibliographies, online journals, discussion groups etc
Bibliographical Repertorium of Greek Lexicography
Bibliography of articles on Greek, organised by words and Greek authors
Hellenistic Greek Linguistics Pages
Biblical Greek grammar. Discussion, texts, links.
One Thousend and One Object From the Syrian Land
Archaeology mainly from Roman times. Lots of pictures. Scroll past the Arabic to the French version.

Jewish Background to the Bible

RabbinicTraditions
Mishnah, Tosephta, & both Talmuds in English & Hebrew, readable (& searchable by members) 
Hebrew Rabbinic texts
Traditional rabbinic texts (Mishna, Tosefta, and Babylonian Talmud and Jerusalem Talmud). Downloadable for PC & Palm
Outline of contents for Talmuds/Mishnah/Tosephta
(Based on Mishnah/Bab. Talmud, but all follow the same plan, mostly with same chapter numbers)
Talmud page layout Interactive Guide
with introductions to the main commentaries etc
Soncino Babylonian Talmud in English
Full text with footnotes, but only 16 tractates.
Rodkinson's Babylonian Talmud in English
Full text but only 22 tractates (+ 3 supplementary tractates). Rodkinson is mostly OK, but he omitted portions which are 'defamatory to the Rabbis' which he thought were inserted by Jewish-Christians
Talmud Manuscripts Project (Jewish National and University Library)
- facsimiles of 78 MSS of Babylonian Talmud & Mishnah from 11 libraries
Wikisource Mishnah (the free library anyone can edit)
An online commuunity project to make a public domain translation with hebrew text. Unfinished.
Good explanations in footnotes.  
eDaf Talmud pages and audio explanation
facsimiles of the traditional pages linked to audio translation & explanation
Schulchan Aruch with translation
The digest of Talmudic laws for daily life, in English with Hebrew.
Traditions of the Rabbis in the Era of the New Testament (T-R-E-N-T)
- earliest traditions dated and explained, esp for NT relevance
Into His Own - Perspective on the World of Jesus
Citations from background texts, organised by subject.
Targums in Aramaic  
Onqelos, Pseudo-Jonathan, Neofiti, Fragmentary, & other non-Torah Targums.
Targums in English  
Onkelos, Pseudo-Jonathan, Fragmentary trans. by Etheridge. Torah plus a few more.
Legends of the Jews by by Louis Ginzberg
- a readable account conflating all Jewish aggadic literature (footnotes are missing)
Mysticism during the Talmudic Era: Sources
The basic sources
Tales And Maxims From The Midrash by Rev. Samuel Rapaport
- large collection of selections from a wide range of Midrashim
Archaeology of Jerusalem and the Temple
Ritmeyer is an archaeologist and a graphic designer. His pictures are superb.
Historical Jewish Maps & Atlases
Biblical, Archeaological, Talmudic to Modern.
AUTHENTIC The Holy Land
Answer questions re archaeology of Israel with information & photos. Tyndale House is a member. Send questions through the Librarian.
Ancient Synagogues
Primary sources and archaeology for ancient synagogues
Ancient Jewish Accounts of Jesus
Josephus, Celcus, Tertullian, Talmud, Toledoth Yeshu - full texts with introductions..
Jewish Encyclopaedia
For ancient Judaism this is than the modern Encyclopaedia Judaica. Full text and searchable
Bar mitzvah tutor
illustrated encyclopaedias of places, people, plants etc plus Torah reading guide
Jewish virtual library
an online encyclopaedia incl. Timeline and Glossary
Introduction to Judaism
from Biblical to modern times. By a Christian, but very good.
Jastrow's Rabbinic Lexicon
Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature.
Hebrew alphabet & links to teach-yourself
also has intros to almost every other written text form. Amazing!
Mechon Mamre
an ultra-othodox site with very useful tools & texts plus guide to festivals & lifestyle
Talmudic passages about Jesus
Full text of Christianity in Talmud and Midrash by R. Travers Herford and Jesus Christ in the Talmud, Midrash, and the Zohar by Gustav Dalman
Inscriptions from the Land of Israel
- aims to collect all inscriptions from Israel 330 BCE - 613 CE
Ancient Kettubot - Marriage certificates
- 1200 MSS covering 900 years, searchable. Pictures of the originals are often very beautiful
Early Hebrew Printing by Michael Davidson
- links to manuscripts and editions of Rabbinic texts
Judaica Archival Project
- about 1000 ancient MSS which are emailed to you for a small fee
Digitized Book Repository Jewish National and University Library
- rare and out-of-print books, mainly in Hebrew
Judaica Libraries and Archives on the Web
- links to significant collections of Judaica around the world
Jewish History Sourcebook
- links and documents covering the whole history of the Jews
Online Texts and Documents Related to Jewish History
- covers ancient to modern, concentrating on actual texts
Taylor-Schechter Genizah Introduction
Taylor-Schechter collection of the Cairo Genizah documents. Very early Jewish papyri. View the texts here
Library of Congress Dead Sea Scrolls Exhibit
The texts in translation, with pictures and introduction. Also archaeological finds.
Dead Sea Scroll photos and links
Orion Center in Israel. Photos, Index to DJD and an exhaustive Bibliography from 1995.
Dead Sea Scrolls & Qumran
Good historical introction & inventry. Few texts..
The Great Isaiah Scroll
Photographs, variants, discussion, and translation of the Qumran Isaiah Scroll.
Dead Sea Scrolls published
A list and timetable of discoveries. Introductions and pictures of MSS.
 

Early Church & Gnostic Background

Pseudepigrapha & NT Apocrypha
A collection of 'all' the works available in translation on the Web. 
Online Pseudepigrapha (Greek Texts)
The best Greek texts with critical apparatus for some. 
4Enoch and related literature
A collection which aims to grow way beyond its original remit.  
Early Church Fathers at CCEL
The full text and footnotes of the standard 38 vols, with searching, and a downloadable version.
Early Christian Writings
Well organised texts from the 1st to 3rd centuries, with bibliographic information and a questionable chronology.
Papyrus Egerton
An unknown gospel which relates to John's Gospel from a new Egyptian papyrus. "Neither Gnostic nor heretical".
Ethiopic texts: in Ethiopian
Enoch, Asc.Is, Test.Adam etc . Or a cheap eprinting with original texts & translation.
Nag Hammadi library
This collection is made by a modern gnostic group, but the texts are useful
eBeth Arké: The Syriac Digital Library
Etexts of Syriac Church Fathers, Bibles, medical & business texts etc. Just starting.
Byzantine Sources
An attempt at an exhaustive collection & bibliography.
Early Christian Writings
Scholarly collection of most writings up to AD 250. Dates 2 Peter after Hermas!.
Early Church Polemics
This collection of is made by a modern gnostic group, but the texts are useful.

 


Church History

Greek and Latin original texts:
For searching all the Greek and Latin texts you still have to pay.
- Greek texts up to about 600 CE are on the TLG (Thesaurus Linguae Graecae)
- Latin texts are on the Patrologia Latina (Cambridge subscription)
CLCLT Library of Latin Texts searchable collection of virtually all Latin texts (Tyndale access via Cambridge University)
Beprolis' In Principio - a bibliography of about 1million latin texts (Cambridge University subscribes)
There are also some good free Web collections, especially: Bibliotheca Augustana and Perseus
 
Catholic Documents
New Advent has all the Fathers, including full Summa Theologica and an amazing encyclopaedia
Documenta Catholica Omnia has collected files and PDF scans of a huge number of document - even Galieo's works
Elsewhere for Contra Gentiles, Orders & Organisations 
Orthodox Documents
St. Pachomius Library has virtually everything Orthodox
Reformation Texts
Hanover texts, include Baxter, Bunyan, Calvin, Elizabethan Homilies, Fox (i.e. condensed Foxe), Hooker, Law, Luther, Melanchthon, Wesley and others.
Project Wittenberg is better to for Luther related texts
Huge general collections of historical texts
Ecole has texts up to 1500
Christian Classics Ethereal Library (CCEL) has virtually everything 'Christian'
The Internet Medieval Sourcebook covers a very wide historical period
Project Gutenberg - a huge collection of almost everything, but not easy to use
Oxford Text Archive Mostly English Literature texts, but this massive archive also has many Church History texts

EST: English Short Title Catalogue (Cambridge University access)
Full library records for all the books printed in Great Britain or any of its dependencies in any language, as well as for materials printed in English anywhere else in the world from 1473-1800. More..
EEBO: Early English Books Online 
Aims to put all the books in the English Short Title catalogue online as page images. They have already completed thousands of titles including works by Malory, Bacon, More, Erasmus, Boyle, Newton, Galileo etc, using the 10,000 feet of microfilm which make up the The Early English Books library.