« A.U.C 584 = 170 B.C. »

Livy 43.11.13 records that an intercalation started on the second day after the Terminalia, hence there was an intercalation of 23 days in this year. Since the Julian dates of A.U.C 585 = 169 are known, this fixes the Julian dates of A.U.C. 584 = 170 as Id. Mart. A.U.C. 584 = 2 January 170 to prid. Id. Mart. A.U.C. 584 = 14 January 169.

Inscription ISE 1.42, first published in P. Charneux, BCH 81 (1959) 181, records a decree awarding honours to the Roman envoy Gn. Octavius, sent to Argos and the Achaian League in this year by the consul A. Hostilius Mancinus. The inscription is dated to the Argive month Apellaios. Unfortunately, since there are several lines missing between the body of the decree and the date, it is not certain that this is also the date of the decree, though it would seem most likely. Also, the position of Apellaios in the Argive calendar is not known.

This embassy is described in Livy 43.17, from which it is clear that it occurred towards the end of the year, since Hostilius sent his colleague C. Popilius to lead a detachment of tropps into winter quarters immediately after they rejoined him at Larisa. Polybius 28.3 describes the same embassy, while calling Hostilius a "proconsul"; however it is clear from Livy that he was actually consul at the time. The embassy visited Thebes and the cities of the Peloponnese before addressing the assemblies of the Achaean and Aetolian Leagues. The visit to Argos apparently happened fairly early in the embassy.

It is argued here that Argive Panemos corresponds to Athenian Hecatombaion, and the names of the following three Argive months -- Agueios, Karneois and Hermaios -- are known. In this year, Hecatombaion starts about 1 July 170, so the earliest possible month for Apellaios is the fourth month thereafter, starting about 28 October 170. The other two possibilities are 27 November and 26 December 170, but these seem too late in the year to apply. This suggests that Argive Apellaios most likely followed Argive Hermaios. In any case the synchronism is more useful for Argive calendrics than for Roman chronology.

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