« A.U.C. 684 = 70 B.C. »
The number of intercalations in the early 60s can be determined from data given by Cicero in his speeches against Verres' mismanagement of affairs in Sicily during the period A.U.C. 681-683 = 73-71.
In Contra Verrem 2.3.36, he tells us that Verres' agent Apronius required that corn be left on the threshing floor until all demands made on the farmer had been paid. When some farmers insisted on paying only the legal rate of tax required, not the extortionate rate demanded, and even allowed threshed corn to be damaged by rain rather than pay the demand, a new edict was issued that required all taxes to be delivered to the waterside by Kal. Sex. A.U.C. 683 = 71 (the year comes from Contra Verrem 2.3.51). The Sicilian harvest is early-mid June, with threshing in late June or early July. Thus, this datum tells us that Kal. Sex. A.U.C. 683 was in mid-July to mid-August of 71.
In Contra Verrem 2.2.140, Cicero states that Verres' successor Metellus repealed many of Verres' measures in his first 30 days after taking up office in Sicily, and that Cicero himself arrived in Sicily in this time, early enough that a letter from Verres' supporters to Metellus that followed his arrival could affect Metellus' policies with visible effect. Cicero spent about 50 days in Sicily (Contra Verrem 1.1.6) investigating matters. It follows that he was authorised to investigate the charges against Verres no later than mid Ianuarius A.U.C. 684, and that his 50 days in Sicily must approximately cover the period from early/mid Februarius to the middle or the latter part of the following month (Intercalaris or Martius). In Pro Scauro 25, he describes this period as lasting from mid-winter to early spring. This datum tells us that Kal. Feb. A.U.C. 684 was most likely somewhere in the period mid January - early February of 70.
Neither datum is precise in isolation, but they can be used to reinforce each other, since both were subject to the same number of intercalations. The following tables estimate the dates for Kal. Sex. A.U.C. 683 and Kal. Feb. A.U.C. 684 by counting possible intercalations back from a.d. XV Kal. Oct. AUC 687 = 28 or 29 September 67. Possible matches are highlighted in blue; best matches are bolded.
Intercalary Months Intercalated days Julian date of Kal. Sex. A.U.C. 683 Julian date of Kal. Feb. A.U.C. 684
0 0 27-28 Sep. 71 22-23 Mar. 70
1 22-23 4-6 Sept. 71 27 Feb. - 1 Mar. 70
2 44-46 12-15 Aug. 70 4-7 Feb. 70
3 66-69 20-24 July 70 12-16 Jan. 70
4 88-92 27 June - 2 July 70 20-25 Dec. 71
The model favours two or three intercalary months in this period but is not sensitive enough to distinguish between them. Cicero's data does not allow us to determine the lengths of these intercalations or their dates.
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