« A.U.C. 702 = 52 B.C. »

The existence of an intercalation in this year is guaranteed by Asconius' commentary on Cicero, Prol Milone, which states that Pompey was named consul on a.d. V Kal. Mart. in the intercalary month.

Cicero Ad Atticum 5.13 tells us that the interval between the murder of P. Clodius Pulcher ("the battle of Bovilla") on a.d. XIII Kal. Feb. A.U.C. 702 = 52 (Cicero, Pro Milone 10.27) and a.d. XI Kal. Sex. AUC 703 = 51 was 560 days. Hence an Intercalaris of 23 days was inserted in one of these years. He also tells us (Pro Milone 35.98) that his speech in defence of T. Annius Milo was scheduled for the 102nd day following the murder, and Asconius' commentary equates this to a.d. VI Id. Apr. A.U.C 702. Hence the intercalary year of 378 days was A.U.C. 702 = 52, and A.U.C. 703 = 51 was a regular year of 355 days.

There is, of course, a quibble. Asconius noted that the historian Fenestella had dated the murder of Clodius to a.d. XIIII Kal. Feb. A.U.C. 702, which if correct would mean that the Intercalaris would be 22 days not 23. M.-T. Raepsaet-Charlier & A. Deman, Historia 23 (1974) 278 at 281ff., argue that Fenestella was correct. Supposing the equations a.d. V Kal. Apr. A.U.C. 696 = 25 March 58 and Kal. Ian. A.U.C. 709 = 1 January 45, they noted that this required two 22-day intercalations between these two dates, one of which must therefore be this particular intercalation. In fact both equations are highly dubious (see here and here). More to the point, Asconius specifically noted that he had consulted the original senate records on the matter, so his date is clearly to be preferred.

Since the Julian dates of A.U.C. 704 = 50 are known, this result fixes the Julian dates of A.U.C. 702 = 52 and A.U.C. 703 = 51.

An important datum for the reconstruction of earlier and later chronology is given by Dio Cassius 40.47 which notes that Kal. Ian. A.U.C 702 was a market day, i.e. that the nundinal letter of market days in that month was A. See further under A.U.C. 706 = 48 and A.U.C. 701 = 53.

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