Ptolemy XII



Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Philopator Philadelphos1 also known as Ptolemy Nothus2 and Ptolemy Auletes3, king of Egypt, son of Ptolemy IX4 by an unnamed mother, possibly a concubine but here identified as Cleopatra IV5, born either c. 98 or (preferred here) late 1176, probably in Cyprus7, here identified with the son of Ptolemy IX who was eponymous priest in year 9 = 109/88, and with one of the two children left behind in Alexandria when his father was expelled in 1079, who was probably sent to Cos in 10310, whence he was probably captured by Mithridates VI of Pontus in spring 8811; returned to Egypt as king probably shortly before 13 Pharmouthi year 2 (of Berenice III) = year 1 = 22 April 8012 with Cleopatra V as coregent13, incorporated in the dynastic cult with her as the Father-loving and Brother-loving Gods: Qeoi FilopatoreV kai Filadelfoi14, crowned in Memphis 7615, removed Cleopatra V as coregent between 4 Mesore year 12 = 8 August and 24 Phaophi year 13 = 1 November 6916, probably victor in the pair at the Basileia at Lebedeia probably before c. 6516.1, not deposed in 6516.2 or 6316.3, deposed by Cleopatra VI (here identified with Cleopatra V), and Berenice IV17 in c. June 5818, restored in February 5519, probably did not associate Ptolemy XIII and/or Cleopatra VII as coregents in early year 30 = 52/120, died of disease February/March 5121, succeeded by Ptolemy XIII and Cleopatra VII22.

Ptolemy XII's titles as king of Egypt were firstly23:

Horus             Hwnw-nfr bnr-mrwt Tnj-sw-nbtsic-rxyt-Hna-kA.f dwA.n.f-xnmw-Sps-r-Szp-n.f-xa(t)-m-nsw
                     snsn.n-sHnw-m-Haaw-mj-ND-jt.f THn-msw(t)-Hr-nst-jt.f-mj-@r-kA-nxt jty-psD-m-&Amrj-mj-@pw-anx
Two Ladies      wr-pHtj xntS-nHH nfr-jb wTz-nfrw-mj-+Hwtj-aA-aA25
Golden Horus    aA-jb jty nb-onw-nxt-mj-zA-Ast26
Throne Name    jwa-n-pA-nTr-nHm stp-n-PtH jrj-MAat-n-Ra sxm-anx-Jmn27
Son of Re         ptwlmjs anx-Dt mrj-PtH-Ast28

Ptolemy XII alternately used certain titles as follows:29

Two Ladies       wr-pHtj xntS-nHH smn-hpw-mj-+Hwtj-aA-aA30
Golden Horus     aA-jb mrj-nTrw-BAot ity-mj-Ra HoA-WADtj31

Ptolemy XII was engaged to Mithridatis or Nyssa, daughter of Mithridates VI king of Pontus, probably in 8032, and had one known marriage33, to Cleopatra V in or before Tybi year 2 = January 7934, here identified as a daughter of Ptolemy X35 probably by Berenice III36, by whom he probably had five37 children: Berenice IV38, Cleopatra VII, Arsinoe IV, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV39.

Update Notes:

11 Feb 2002: Added individual trees
27 Feb 2002: Split into individual entry
12 May 2002: Corrected Roman and Egyptian date equations as necessary
22 May 2002: Added discussion of the date of the engagement to Mithridatis or Nyssa daughter of Mithridates of Pontus.
30 June 2002: Added discussion of republican Roman calendar in 50 and 49. Corrected Roman and Egyptian date equations again as necessary
6 April 2003: Corrected a mistranscribed date of a Ciceronian letter
18 May 2003: Changed Plutarch Xrefs to the Lacus Curtius edition
18 June 2003: Updated Xrefs to translations of Caesar
23 Aug 2003: Added Xref to online Justin
23 Oct 2003: Added Xref to online Appian
24 Feb 2004: Added Xrefs to online Strabo and Prol. Trogus
13 Sep 2004: Add Xref to online Eusebius
14 Oct 2004: Added discussion of supposed depositions and rebellions of 65 and 63.
15 Oct 2004: Expanded and detailed discussion of the date of the engagement to Mithridates' daughter in response to critique by Mark Passehl
18 Oct 2004: Expanded and detailed discussion of the likelihood that Ptolemy XII was a hostage at Mithridates' court in response to critique by Mark Passehl
19 Oct 2004: Removed redundant discussion of Roman chronology.
20 Oct 2004: Expanded and detailed discussion of De Rege Alexandrino in response to critique by Mark Passehl
27 Oct 2004: Note Seibert's argument that the age of Mithridates' daughters in 63 is not an objection to an engagement in 81/0.
9 Nov 2004: Located secure latest date before Berenice IV.
9 Dec 2004: Added Xref to discussion on proposals that he was also known as "o Kokkes" and "Pareisaktos" (probably Ptolemy X)
9 Dec 2004: Added note that Ptolemuy IX summoned Demetrius III from Cnidos, suggesting he could have recovered sons from Cos -- thanks to Mark Passehl
6 Jan 2005: Added note on the victory at the Lebadeia
19 Jan 2005: Updated Xref on Alexandrian Wars to ForumRomanum edition
11 Mar 2005: Added Greek transcription, links to images of pOxy 19.2222, 55.3777, DDBDP transcript of pOxy 2.236, Bevan
5 Aug 2006: Note Mark Passehl's comment the the duos filios of Selene are children, not necessarily both sons. Reword some misleading phrases.
26 Aug 2006: Add links to sources and discussion of Lebedaia victory
16 Sep 2006: Add links to Packard Humanities DB, Canon at Attalus.
14 Oct 2006: Add ref and link to SEG 39.1705, earliest date of Ptolemy XII after return from exile
26 Nov 2006: Restructure arguments on age, maternity, illegitimacy for greater clarity and neutrality
14 Dec 2006: Discuss possible significance of the fact that the scholiast calls the defended king "Ptolemy" in commentary on F9 and F10.
22 Feb 2007: Correct relationship of oThebes 30 to iBucheum 13 -- thanks to Mark Depauw
4 March 2007: Note Depauw's argument that oThebes 14 belongs to Ptolemy XII not Ptolemy X -- thanks to Mark Depauw
4 March 2007: Adjust discussion of chronology to Cleopatra -- thanks to Mark Depauw
28 May 2007: Added Xrefs to BASP papers
15 Aug. 2007: Note Huss' discussions on legitimacy of Ptolemy XII's children and his "wives" in BM 886; note pOxy 2222 on age.
27 Oct. 2007: Add discussion of apparent ages of portrait statues attributed to Ptolemy XII in DoB section
16 Feb 2008: Note inscription honoring his wetnurse Tryphaina in 60/59, and the prosopographical possibliities for her husband Ammonios.
10 Mar 2008: More prosopographical notes on candidate Ammonioi.
7 June 2008: Note Hoover's redating of Tigranes' invasion of Syria and its implications for Auletes' residence in 81/0 -- thanks to Oliver Hoover
31 July 2010: Collect responses to Huss' critique of my suggestion that Auletes was a son of Cleopatra IV; comment on Huss/Roller proposal that Auletes married a member of the HPMs
12 Sep. 2010: Note that iKition 2003 proves that Ptolemy IX had living children in 105.
7 Dec. 2010: Fix broken Perseus & DDbDP links
7 Aug 2012: In connection with suggestions that his mother was an Egyptian aristocrat, or that he married one, note that there is no longer any evidence that Berenice, wife of HPM Psherenptah II, was a Ptolemaic princess.

Website © Chris Bennett, 2001-2012 -- All rights reserved