Ptolemy Philadelphus1, son of Cleopatra VII and Antony2, born c. August/September 363, declared king of Phoenicia, Syria and Cilicia at the Donations of Alexandria in autumn 344, placed under the guardianship of Octavia, sister of Augustus, after the annexation of Egypt5, further career unknown; possibly died before August 296. No marriages or children are known.
 PP VI 14563, PIR2 P 1033. Gr: Ptolemaios Filadelfos. M. Grant, Cleopatra 150, suggests that the name was deliberately intended to recall Ptolemy II Philadelphus, whose empire Cleopatra was recreating. Ý
 The argument is circumstantial, and is summarised in J. Lindsay, Cleopatra 241. Terminus ante quem: Philadelphus was able to walk and to salute his parents at the Donations of Alexandria in autumn 34 (Plutarch, Antony 54.5) so must have been at least 2 years old then. Terminus post quem: After Antony left Egypt to go to Italy, which was before the birth of the twins Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene, he and Cleopatra VII did not meet again until the winter following the renewal of the triumvirate (Plutarch, Antony 36). The triumvirate was extended for a five year term near the end of the first, in late 37. Hence Antony and Cleopatra VII met at Antioch in winter 37/6, and Philadelphus cannot have been conceived before this date. Therefore he must have been born late summer 36. Ý
 D. W. Roller, The World of Juba II and Kleopatra Selene 83, notes that he was not listed as taking part in Augustus' triumph in August 29 (Dio Cassius 51.21.8) while Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene are. He concludes that he had died by this time and suggests that he died in the winter of 30/29, being unused to the harsher Italian winter climate.
There are two objections to this. First, it is widely held that Dio Cassius 51.15.6 indicates that he was still alive at the time Juba II married Cleopatra Selene, in the late 20s. On this point see discussion under Alexander Helios. Second, it is an argument from silence, and it is easy to produce examples of triumphs which are not completely described in any source. For example, neither Dio Cassius 43.19 nor Suetonius, Caesar 37 note that Juba and Octavian both took part in Caesar's African triumph; the first is known from Appian, Civil Wars 2.101, who does not mention Octavian's role, the second from Suetonius, Augustus 8.
Despite these caveats, Roller's suggestion seems not unreasonable to me, though certainly not proven. Ý
11 Feb 2002: Added individual trees
28 Feb 2002: Split out into separate entry
18 May 2003: Changed Plutarch Xrefs to the Lacus Curtius edition
19 Oct 2004: Changed Periochae Xref to Lendering translation
6 Nov 2004: Added notes on Roller's discussion of the date of his death.
11 Mar 2005: Added Greek transcription
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