Cleopatra III1, Euergetis2 and Philometor Soteira3, believed also to have been known as Kokke4, queen of Egypt, daughter of Ptolemy VI and Cleopatra II5, date of birth unknown but estimated at c. 160/1556, probably not engaged to Ptolemy VIII before his accession7, incorporated in the dynastic cult between 18 Mesore year 28 = 10 September 142 and 14 Pharmouthi year 29 = 8 May 1418, made coruler between 14 Pharmouthi year 29 = 8 May 141 and either 20 Choiak year 30 = 14 January 140 or 10-19 Tybi year 31 = 3-12 February 1399, married Ptolemy VIII probably at the same time but certainly between 14 Pharmouthi year 29 = 8 May 141 and 20 Choiak year 30 = 14 January 14010, provided with a separate priest in the dynastic cult, the ieroV pwloV ("holy colt"), in year 40 = 131/011, fled to Cyprus with Ptolemy VIII 13012, returned with him to Alexandria c. 12713, became senior ruler in association with her eldest son Ptolemy IX on the death of Cleopatra II in late 116 or early 11514, established the priesthoods of the stephanophore ("crown-bearer"), the phosporos ("torch-bearer") and her personal priesthood in the dynastic cult, all in her honour as Philometor Soteira Dikaiosyne Nikephoros, in year 2 = 116/515, expelled Ptolemy IX from Alexandria and replaced him as coregent with her second son Ptolemy X16 in September/October 10717, personally acted as eponymous priest in year 13 (of Cleopatra III) = year 10 (of Ptolemy X) = 105/418, killed by Ptolemy X19 c. September 10120, succeeded as senior ruler by Ptolemy X.
Cleopatra III's titles as king of Egypt were21:
Horus Nb(t)-tAwj kA-nxt22
Cleopatra III had at least five children by Ptolemy VIII23: Ptolemy IX24, Ptolemy X25, Tryphaena26, Cleopatra IV27 and Cleopatra Selene28.
 PP VI 14517. Gr: Kleopatra. Ý
 In general she is attested with this title while associated with Ptolemy VIII or Ptolemy X, though she is also occasionally given the title Euergetis alongside Philometor Soteira during the intervening years with Ptolemy IX. On the proposal by S. Cauville & D. Devauchelle, RdE 35 (1984) 31, that a distinction exists between Cleopatra II Philometor Soteira and Cleopatra III Euergetis during these years, see discussion under Cleopatra II and also D. J. Thompson in L. Criscuolo & G. Geraci (eds.) Egitto e storia antica dall'ellenismo all'età araba 693. Ý
 In general she is attested with this title while associated with Ptolemy IX. On the proposal by S. Cauville & D. Devauchelle, RdE 35 (1984) 31, that a distinction exists between Cleopatra II Philometor Soteira and Cleopatra III Euergetis during these years, see discussion under Cleopatra II and also D. J. Thompson in L. Criscuolo & G. Geraci (eds.) Egitto e storia antica dall'ellenismo all'età araba 693. Ý
 Strabo 17.1.8 -- see discussion under Ptolemy X. Ý
 Justin 38.8. In pdem Berlin 3113, dated 14 Pharmouthi year 29 = 8 May 141, and pdem Berlin 3090+3091, dated 16 Mesore year 30 = 7 September 140, two priesthoods are named at Ptolemais, one in honour of Cleopatra (II) the queen, the other in honour of Cleopatra (III) as the daughter of the king. pGrenf. 2.15, dated 25 Thoth year 32 = 21 October 139, names the cult as that of "queen Cleopatra the daughter", which clearly shows that this cult is for Cleopatra III, and not, as has sometimes been sugested, Cleopatra IV. Evidently, she was his stepdaughter. See E. Boswinkel & P. W. Pestman, Les archives privées de Dionysios, fils de Kephalas 65. The priesthood is attested as late as year 33 = 138/7 in pdem Tor. Botti 8, well after she was married to her stepfather. Ý
 Based on the estimated birth date of Ptolemy IX in 142. Ý
 Polybius 39.7.6 says that Ptolemy VI engaged his daughter to Ptolemy VIII but that they never married. The identity of the daughter involved is not given. This story appears in the context of Ptolemy VI's defeat of his brother's attempt to invade Cyprus at the battle of Lapethos in 154, making the daughter involved most likely to be Cleopatra Thea. Ý
 Terminus post quem: inscription at Edfu (M. Rochemonteix & E. Chassinat, Le temple d'Edfou IV 9.1-3) which only names Cleopatra II. Terminus ante quem: pdem Berlin 3113, where Cleopatra III is named as the "beneficient" but not yet as queen. See E. Boswinkel & P. W. Pestman, Les archives privées de Dionysios, fils de Kephalas 65, P. W. Pestman, The Archive of the Theban Choacytes 82(a). Ý
 Terminus post quem: pdem Berlin 3113, where Cleopatra III is named in the dating formula as the "beneficient" but not yet as queen. Terminus ante quem: pdem Amherst 2.51. The reading of "queen", made by W. Spiegelberg (unp.), is questioned by Pestman as uncertain, but he suggests no alternative and it seems to me that the context of the dating formula makes it rather more likely than not, despite pdem Berlin 3113. Nevertheless, pdem Berlin 3090+3091, dated to 16 Mesore year 30 = 7 September 140 omits Cleopatra III from the dating formula. See P. W. Pestman, The Archive of the Theban Choacytes 86(b), 88(b). If the reading of queen here is not accepted, then the earliest evidence of Cleopatra III as queen is 10+[x] Tybi = 3-12 February 139 (C. Ord. 47), where she is named as basilissa. Ý
 Terminus post quem: pdem Berlin 3113, where Cleopatra III is named as the "beneficient" but not yet queen. Terminus ante quem: pdem Amherst 2.51. The reading of "wife" is regarded by Pestman as certain. Nevertheless, pdem Berlin 3090+3091, dated to 16 Mesore year 30 = 7 September 140 omits Cleopatra III from the dating formula. See P. W. Pestman, The Archive of the Theban Choacytes 86(b), 88(b). Ý
 First mentioned in pdemLeiden 273a (E. Lüddekens, Ägyptische Eheverträge no. 37) dated 6 Pachon year 40 = 28 May 130. Last mentioned in year 13 = year 10 = 105/4 in pKöln 2.81 = SB X 10763 (L. Koenen, ZPE 5 (1970) 61). See discussion in E. Van't Dack et al. The Judean-Syrian-Egyptian Conflict of 103-101 BC 19f. The hieros polos had precedence immediately after the eponymous priest and before the athlophore. The provision of a priest rather than a priestess in honour of the queen as goddess is quite unusual. Ý
 See discussion under Cleopatra II. Ý
 See discussion under Cleopatra II. Ý
 See discussion under Cleopatra II. Ý
 First recorded in pdem Cairo 30602 and 30603 dated 18 Phamenoth year 2 = 6 April 115. Last recorded in in year 13 = year 10 = 105/4 in pKöln 2.81 = SB 10.10763 (but without the stephanophore). See D. J. Thompson in L. Criscuolo & G. Geraci (eds.) Egitto e storia antica dall'ellenismo all'età araba 693. The full title she gave herself as senior ruler is "the mother-loving goddess, the saviour, mistress of justice, bringer of victory". The stephanophore was given precedence over the athlophore, the phosphoros over the canephore, and the priestess of queen Cleopatra over the priestess of Arsinoe Philopator. See J. IJsewijn, De Sacerdotibus Sacerdotiisque Alexandri Magni et Lagidarum Eponymis 122. The records of the dynastic cult peter out at about this time, probably due to writer's cramp. Ý
 Pausanias 1.9.1, Justin 39.4. Ý
 The last known date of Cleopatra III with Ptolemy IX is BGU 3.996 from Pathyris, dated 5 Phaophi year 11 = 23 October 107; the first certain date from Cleopatra III with Ptolemy X is pGrenf. 2.23a, also from the Pathyrite nome, dated 28 Phaophi year 11 and 8 = 15 November 107. A. E. Samuel, Ptolemaic Chronology 151, notes that Porphyry in Eusebius, Chronicorum I (ed. Schoene) 163 gives 10 years for their joint reign (15 in the Armenian version), and argues that this implies that Ptolemy IX was expelled near the end of his 10th year, allowing for a few weeks delay for the news to reach Pathyris. O. Mørkholm, ANSMN 20 (1975) 7, notes that we have no coins dated to year 11 alone nor any to year 10 = 7, and therefore concurs with this conclusion: the expulsion happened around the new year, 1 Thoth = 19 September 107, and may therefore be dated to September/October 107.
W. Otto & H. Bengtson, Zur Geschichte des Niederganges des Ptolemäerreiches 160ff. and 173ff. argue that Cleopatra III attempted to replace Ptolemy IX by Ptolemy X in year 8 = 110/9 and year 9 = 109/8. The first is based on pRein 22 = pDion. 18, naming Ptolemy X after Cleopatra III on 12 Phaophi year 8 = 31 October 110 according to them, but Ptolemy IX is named again by 16 Tybi year 9 = 2 February 109 (pRein 15 = pDion. 15). The second is based on pAdler 5, naming Ptolemy X after Cleopatra III and dated 12 Pachons year 9 = 28 May 108. However, E. Boswinkel & P. W. Pestman, Les archives privées de Dionysios, fils de Kephalas 67f. note that the year number of pRein 22 = pDion. 18 could well be interpreted as that of Ptolemy X rather than Cleopatra III, since there are other texts of around Phaophi year 8 of Cleopatra III in which Ptolemy IX is named, and since an assignment to Ptolemy X would place it very shortly after his accession; in this case pRein 22 can be dated to 30 October 107. Since pAdler 5 likewise stands alone if interpreted under Cleopatra III's year numbers, it seems simplest to reassign it likewise to Ptolemy X, causing it to be redated to 28 May 105. Ý
 pKöln 2.81 = SB 10.10763. This is the only recorded occurrence of a woman acting as the eponymous priest. See L. Koenen, ZPE 5 (1970) 61. Ý
 Justin 39.4. Ý
 Not considered in the Canon of Ptolemy, which lists the Ptolemies patriarchally, except for Cleopatra VII. Last known date for Cleopatra III: pAdler 11 dated to 28 Thoth year 17 = 14 October 101. First known date for Ptolemy X with Berenice III: pAdler 12 dated to 10 Phaophi year 14 = 26 October 101. A. E. Samuel, Ptolemaic Chronology 152 n. 41 notes that the year number is restored but that pAdler 12 is referred to in pAdler 14 with this date, so the restoration is certain. Allowing as usual for a few weeks delay in the spreading of the news, we can estimate her death around late September 101. Ý
 Not in J. von Beckerath, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (2nd edition) 240 (8d). Not transliterated in P. Derchain, El-Kâb I: Les monuments religieux à l'entrée de l'Ouady Hellal. 49(b) n. 4. The transliteration here is taken from comparable titles listed in W. Barta, ZÄS 116 (1989) 111. Ý
 "Mistress of the two lands, mighty bull", given as the title of the female Horus. P. Derchain, El-Kâb I: Les monuments religieux à l'entrée de l'Ouady Hellal. 49(b) n. 4 and pl. 14. The title is found in the Ptolemaic hemispheos, containing also inscriptions referring to Ptolemy VIII (p53), Ptolemy IX and Ptolemy X (p37), so the assignment to Cleopatra III is certain. Ý
 Berenice, wife of Psherenptah II High Priest of Memphis, was probably born in her reproductive years, so cannot be excluded as a possible sixth child.
M. L. Strack, Die Dynastie der Ptolemäer 177, suggests that Ptolemy Neos Philopator could have been the oldest son of Cleopatra III by Ptolemy VIII, though he favoured Cleopatra II as his mother. See discussion under Ptolemy Memphites. Ý
 Justin 39.3, Pausanias 1.9.1. See discussion under Ptolemy IX. Ý
 Justin 39.3, 39.4. Ý
 Justin 39.3, where Tryphaena accuses Cleopatra IV of marrying outside Egypt against their mother's wishes. Ý
 Justin 39.3. Ý
 Justin 39.3. Ý
10 Feb 2002: Added individual trees
23 Feb 2002: Split into separate entry
18 May 2003: Added Xrefs to the Lacus Curtius edition of Polybius
18 June 2003: Added the modern French slang "cocchinelle (ladybird) = queer, pansy" as an analogy to the proposal "kokke (scarlet) = cunt" (thanks to Bill Thayer).
23 Aug 2003: Added Xrefs to online Justin
24 Feb 2004: Added Xref to online Strabo
27 Feb 2004: Expanded discussion of cult of "Cleopatra the daughter"
13 Sep 2004: Add Xref to online Eusebius
9 Dec 2004: Moved Kokke discussion to Ptolemy X, since it relates to the identification of the parties involved better there.
13 Jan 2005: Added link to discussion of Strack's argyument that Neos philopator could be a son of Cleopatra III.
11 Mar 2005: Added Greek transcription
14 Sep 2006: Added link to Canon at Attalus
28 Nov 2010: Fix broken Perseus & DDbDP links
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