« A.U.C. 544 = 210 B.C. »
Livy 26.26 notes that one of the consuls for this year, M. Valerius Laevinius, learned that he had been elected consul while engaged in the brief siege of Anticyra, which he had launched "in the beginning of spring". In Greece, the beginning of spring could be accounted as early as mid February, so he learnt of his election, at the earliest, in the last part of that month. Livy also notes that his return to Rome was unexpectedly delayed due to illness, with the result that only his colleague M. Marcellus was able to take up his consular post on Id. Mart. Hence he received the news in time to return to take up his post, had he been well, so he must have learnt of his election no later than about Kal. Mart. In other words, the Roman calendar was quite well aligned with the Julian calendar at this time, or slightly behind it.
There is an additional indication at the end of this year. Livy 27.4 notes that consular elections were at hand as the summer was drawing to a close, i.e. around late October or early November. Consular elections were normally held in mid-late Ianuarius. Hence Ianuarius should approximately correspond to December.
There were 5 intercalations between A.U.C. 542 = 212 and A.U.C. 564 = 190, the most recent year whose dates are certain, and 2 between A.U.C. 551 = 203 and A.U.C. 564 = 190. The following table gives the possible date ranges for Id. Mart. and Kal. Ian. A.U.C. 544 assuming 2-5 intercalations between this year and A.U.C. 564 = 190.
Number of Intercalations Number of intercalated days Julian dates in A.U.C. 544
A.U.C. 544-564 Id. Mart. Kal. Ian.
2 44-46 26-28 April 210 4 Feb. 209
3 66-69 3-6 April 210 12 Jan. 209
4 88-92 11-15 March 210 20 Dec. 210
5 110-132 16-21 Feb. 210 27 Nov. 210
From this table, it is clear that Laevinius' appointment requires that there were no more than 4 intercalations between this year and A.U.C. 564 = 190. The consular elections, while certainly a weaker synchronism, suggest that there were 4 or 5 intercalations between this year and A.U.C. 564 = 190. Hence we may conclude that there were most probably 4 intercalations between this year and A.U.C. 564 = 190.
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